Judaism and the Culture of Education
June. When the first rays of summer shine down upon us. When the last days of school close. To some, the end of memories and the end of an era. To others, a graduation to the next step on their ladder to success. This month’s piece will focus on the education, and academic graduation. In honor of two special graduates in my life, the culinary spotlight will be on their two favorite celebratory foods (which they could eat for any reason, at any time, during any day of the year), Pizza and Mac & Cheese.
“I never let schooling interfere with my education” [Mark Twain]
Let me put it out there before we go on any further. I am a HUGE proponent of education and learning for children . . . . and adults. However, I am not a big fan of the current education system for the youth of America. I believe that the current system teaches children to take the next test, but does not prepare them to optimize whatever special tools, skills, and talents that they may be able to best contribute to the world. In addition to reading my following summary of the general history of education, I would also highly recommend reading Dr. Peter Gray’s article, “A Brief History of Education” that appeared in Psychology Today.
Figure 1 Plato’s Academy (Source: Wikipedia)
Earliest humans learned by watching and learning from their elders and the more experienced members of their clans from parent to child or through apprenticeships. As civilization became more complex and more things were needed to memorize, the invention of writing came into being. Reading and writing were then needed to be taught, so the first “schools” were created, and with the creation of schools, teachers (elders, priests, etc.) began to teach their students. Most individuals at the time were workers, working from day-break to night-fall, so the students were primarily those with wealth or status or younger children. Memorization was the most common form of learning (and teachers used harsh corporal punishment as motivation for learning).
“Research shows that there is only half as much variation in student achievement between schools as there is among classrooms in the same school. If you want your child to get the best education possible, it is actually more important to get him assigned to a great teacher than to a great school” [Bill Gates]
As societies began to develop, so did the education process. In Ancient Greece, the education of its citizens was geared towards developing young adults to take part in society as adults. However, education depended upon the individual city-states. For instance, in Sparta. education was focused on the military, and boys as young as seven years old would begin mandatory training, which became more physically severe every year until they were eighteen, at which point they would join the military itself. The average Spartan was not taught reading and writing, but were taught dancing and music. This contrasts with Athens, where children (also beginning at about six or seven) would learn both a combination of military training and education in arts and literature. Education ended at about fourteen years of age, most of the boys would go into a trade, although children of the rich would continue with their learning. In Ancient Rome, most of the learning occurred at home, however, the rich may have sent their young children (boys and sometimes girls) to elementary schools to learn reading, writing, and arithmetic, followed by grammar school at age 12 or 13 to learn Latin, Greek, and the arts. At age 16, boys who wanted to go into public service could learn the art of oration at schools of rhetoric. It was the Romans that developed the division of schools into “grades.”
“An investment in knowledge pays the best interest” [Benjamin Franklin]
The ancient Jews had a very positive view on education, instilling the act of learning on all of its citizens, including children, regardless of class. All boys from six to thirteen were taught rudimentary reading, writing, and arithmetic. As historian Flavius Josephus wrote: “[Jews] take most pains of all with the instruction of the children and esteem the observance of the laws and the piety corresponding with them the most important affair of our whole life.” After the age of thirteen (Bar Mitzvah), those showing an affinity for learning would continue their learning, studying under the rabbis at their local synagogues.
The wars, invading armies, and pestilence brought about most formal education within Europe and the Middle East. Most education was done though the church, and focused on the education of the mind, and little with training of the body (and children from 6 to 18 were taught together, including some women). However, by the 11th century, universities began to be established, where men could further their education without being a member of the clergy. The first established was the University of Karueein in 859. No, it was not in Europe, but in Fez, Morocco). The first to be established in Europe was the University of Bologna (Bologna, Italy). For the nobility, many young men also learned the arts of chivalry and aristocracy.
As the Renaissance began to take hold on Europe during the 15th century, education of the young began to take a turn back towards the more humanistic view of the ancient Greeks, where children from the age of six through their twenties were taught various subjects ranging from history to geometry and art to astronomy. However, secondary education was mainly for the rich. As the Renaissance came to an end, secondary schooling covered the basics, but it was taught to be memorized, with strict (and usually harsh) taskmasters as their teachers, with prayer books and Latin and Greek manuscripts as their primary tools for learning.
“It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education” [Albert Einstein]
Sometime around the 17th century, a few notable educators (such as Johann Comenius) began to discuss the concept and process of education beyond the traditional means. He even created a text book for children which provided text accompanied by pictures (known as Orbus Pictus). But it was not for more than another hundred years that some of the theories began to be brought into practice. We have Jacques Rousseau to thank for this, who’s research into child development led the way to really began to shed the idea that children of different ages learn and develop differently. Ironically, the first government controlled school system was created in Prussia in the late 1700s, just after Rousseau’s death, but it ignored all of his theories.
Early Colonial education followed in the footsteps of their European ancestry. Youth were schooled in the four R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion) using the bible and its psalms as the primary teaching tool. In 1690, The New England Primer was added to most curriculum throughout the United States, which taught reading in conjunction with religious lessons – and was used until the early 1800s. In the mid-1700s, Benjamin Franklin began creating secondary schools that focused more on history, math, geography, and other skills that would help them in life such as merchant accounting, surveying, and navigation, although religion was still a part of the curriculum. In 1783, Noah Webster’s American Spelling Book was first published, which standardized the spelling of American/English words, and taught children how to properly spell.
“There is no greater education than one that is self-driven” [Neil deGrasse Tyson]
By the end of the 1800s, most countries in Europe had a standardized state-run education system. However, the education process itself had not changed much, teaching the same way it had for centuries. The axiom, “those who can’t do, teach” was true for teachers over the centuries. Teachers were not very skilled, and taught through repetition, and fear, so the children did not always learn much more than what was in their primers. The image of the taskmaster standing over a child with a ruler or whip in hand was much more the case than the smiling and caring Miss Beadle on the Little House on the Prarie. Fortunately, there were a few bright spots in education, such Johann Pestalozzi’s secondary school in Switzerland during the 1800s, where the teacher’s responsibility was to guide the growth of the child. Around this time Freidrich Wilhelm Froebel created institutions where young children would learn by self-activity. He called his schools Kleinkinderbeschaftig-ungasantalt, you probably know them better as their modern name of Kindergarten (translated from German as a “garden for children”).
In the early 20th century, a physician in Italy began creating schools for children that were thought could not be educated. Using some of the above theories, and emphasizing the freedom of the children and individual development, Maria Montessori created the Montessori schools.
“Education is the most powerful weapon we can use to change the world” [Nelson Mandela]
State-supported, and secular-free schools began to take hold in the United States in the early to mid-1800s – and the schools would be free to all citizens. Under guidance of Horace Mann, in 1837, Massachusetts established a school to train teachers. By that time, state-sponsored High Schools also began to pop-up, beginning in 1821 in Boston. The original purpose was to extend a child’s education, but when colleges began forming in 1862 (after the land-grant Acts), High Schools began to have a secondary purpose of preparing children for advance undergraduate degrees. At first, colleges were meant for boys, but by 1833, Oberlin College allowed co-ed students, and the first all-girl school of higher education, Vassar, was established in 1861 as the first all-woman university.
During the 1900s, the education process went through many changes, streamlining the curriculum and using a number of the concepts of childhood development into the child’s schooling. Although additional changes have occurred over the last century, the system has more-or-less remained the same. However, in the U.S., there are now more choices of schooling for a child, which now include charter schools, magnet schools, virtual schools, home schooling, and even un-schooling, but there is also a greater emphasis on standardized testing.
What Is Education?
The one controversial issue in Jewish education I had discovered during my research pertains to the Orthodox community (especially in New York (Brooklyn and Rockland County), and the non-secular curriculum they provide to their children. It is not that education is not important to them, it is extremely important to then, but the classes they teach allegedly do not include the minimum requirements in secular subjects. Some yeshivot (Hebrew schools) teach in Yiddish until the seventh or eighth grade, then switch to Hebrew, with little instruction provided in English as well as math and social studies, and some only teach those subjects from 4th to 8th grade.
Although the non-secular education does provide these children they need to survive and grow within the Orthodox community, it does not provide the skill necessary for those that want to live and work outside of it. For instance, Naftuli Moster discovered how poorly his elementary and High School education had prepared him for the secular world when he attended college (the first English essay he claims he ever wrote was for his application to college) – many of the subjects were almost foreign to him, even the concept of a “molecule.” In 2012 he decided to try to do something about implementing more non-secular subjects into the schoolroom, and formed YAFFED (Young Advocates for Fair Education). Although the teaching of non-secular subjects to at least a minimum level have been on the books for years, it has been hard (or impossible) to impose the law by the Department of Education upon most of these schools. There is currently additional pending law that would force these schools to adhere to instilling non-secular classes (or providing an appropriate time to its teaching) into their programs, but there is a huge number of people in that community that are against it – the consequences of not adhering to the laws, if enforced, could be the loss of funding from the State.
Most Yeshivot around the country do provide the non-secular courses (and do have six days of school to do so). This controversy does bring up the discussion of whether each community has the right to teach its children in the way it sees fit, versus the notion that at least a minimum amount of teaching ought to be provided in what the larger society deems to be needed in specific subject.
The question then becomes: what is education, and should everyone adhere to that same definition? Dictionary.com has five definitions for this word:
- the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.
- the act or process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills, as for a profession.
- a degree, level, or kind of schooling: a university education.
- the result produced by instruction, training, or study: to show one’s education.
- the science or art of teaching; pedagogics.
What is relevant in all of these definitions is that the type of knowledge being imparted or acquired is not specified. If a “place of learning” taught magic tricks all day, it would technically be providing an education. In today’s modern society, many of us consider the basic 3 R’s of reading, writing, and arithmetic the fundamental building blocks of education paramount to the upbringing of our children. Many would also include advanced classes on each of these skills, along with science, literature, language arts, social studies, etc. as mandatory supplements.
The New York Board of Higher Education may not have defined the term education, but it does provide the amount of time to be provided in specific subjects for homeschooling. For instance, it states, in part:
(i) For grades one through six: arithmetic, reading, spelling, writing, the English language, geography, United States history, science, health education, music, visual arts, physical education, bilingual education and/or English as a second language where the need is indicated.
(ii) For grades seven and eight: English (two units); history and geography (two units); science (two units); mathematics (two units); physical education (on a regular basis); health education (on a regular basis); art (one-half unit); music (one-half unit); practical arts (on a regular basis) and library skills (on a regular basis). The units required herein are cumulative requirements for both grades seven and eight. [1 unit = 108 hours]
(iii) The following courses shall be taught at least once during the first eight grades: United States history, New York State history, and the Constitutions of the United States and New York State.
I am going under an assumption (which may be false) that schools need to follow a similar allocation of minimal time to provide teaching the above subjects. Until sixth grade, all subjects can be provided cursory treatment, but there are actual hours associated with teaching beginning in 7th grade. For the younger children, there is an argument to be made for child-guided learning in a homeschool/un-school, or a parochial school. However, beginning 7th grade (10 to 12 year-olds), may need the knowledge in these mandatory classes to help them later in life (High School, College, and life as an adult).
“Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school.” [Albert Einstein]
But what if a child shows remarkable skills in a vocation, and intends on going directly into a vocational school – will the mandatory science or language skills be of great help to them? This brings us back to the yeshiva scenario above. If these children are going to grow up and become part of the ultra-orthodox community, where such skills are not deemed necessary, should they be forced upon them? Arguments can be made for and against providing “traditional” courses based on the individual needs of each child.
There are also some more extreme cases. As this essay has presented, education is extremely important to Judaism and its culture. Some in the ultra-Orthodox community believe that only the study of Torah is the only thing of importance, and all studies should be conducted to learning if its beauty, teachings, and trying to unlock and understand it’s mysteries. A very learned rabbi, Rabbi Shteinmann was once asked about whether it was okay to open up schools that taught vocational schools, such as for the study of trade. He responded: “Because he’s no longer good, you want to send him to acquire a trade? It’s like adding poison to poison. A trade is poison. . . . Everything must be the Torah.”
The Talmud (the body of Jewish law), however, had a lot of respect for those that took up a vocation; although they felt that one must be vigilant in which vocation one chooses, since it may keep one away from their studies. In fact, the Talmud was abhorred idleness (see Kethubus 59b and Noson 11:1), and Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon wrote that “[g]reat is labor for it honors the workman.” In my opinion, if the Talmud and Jewish law respect the idea of honest work, should not the education system also provide for those students?
This discussion would not be complete without a short tale where this concept of “everything must be the Torah” is taken to the ultimate level. One of the most prestigious yeshiva in the world was Etz Chaim Yeshiva (Volozhin Yeshiva) in Lithuania. In 1892, the Yeshiva closed its doors after the Russian authorities “asked” the school to provide secular education. Instead of complying, the rabbi (Rabbi Naffali Zvi Yehuda Berlin) closed down the yeshiva. [Fast Fact: Although some sources claim it may have been due to the long number of hours demanded to perform secular classes, some claim that there were internal political factors that weighted upon the decision to close.]
Figure 2 Etz Chaim Yeshiva in Early 1900s (Source: Wikipedia)
“Give a man to fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime” [Maimonides]
The idea of a student receiving a degree comes from the Islam, which is century old. However, the first graduation ceremony for a bachelorette degree began in 1432 at Oxford University, which included each graduate to give a sermon . . . . in Latin.
The dress code for the US was first proposed by Gardner Cotrell Leonard in 1893 (based on European traditions), and many are still followed today. Here’s the origin of some of the graduation practices that many graduates practice today
Cap and Gown: Professors in England during the 13th century began wearing a cap and gown to show that they were scholars (and to keep warm in the big drafty classrooms). Eventually this tradition began to be taken up by graduating students to show their newly acquired level of scholarship. Only two college now require their professors to wear a gown while teaching (Cambridge and Oxford). The throwing of the caps in the air at the end of the ceremony began in 1912 by graduates at the Naval Academy (the caps were no longer needed, since they were being replaced by officer hats they recieved at the ceremony).
Hoods: The wearing of hoods goes back even further, to the time of the Celts, where Celtic leaders would wear the hoods to distinguish themselves by having superior intelligence.
Tassels: Tassels have been word by graduates for many years to decorate the cap. However moving the tassels from one side to the other is a more recent tradition, which began in the 1950s or 1960s
Diploma: Graduates did not begin receiving diplomas until 1642, when the nine graduates of Harvard received an Arts book, which they had to give back after the ceremony. The first physical “diploma,” was not given out until 1813 at Harvard, which they could keep. However, before then, a student could pay someone to create a diploma by writing it on a parchment (in Latin), then paying the school’s President to sign it. One such diploma by a James Ward dates from 1645. The first woman to receive a diploma was Catherine Brewer Benson, from Wesleyan College in 1840.
Ring: Based on the Ancient Egyptians believe of wearing a scarab ring to provide eternal life, West Point began creating rings for its graduating class beginning in 1835. Since then the rings have become much more widespread, and more elaborate.
“Pomp and Circumstances”: This song has become the go-to music for many graduation ceremonies. The music was first performed in 1901 in Liverpool, England by Sir Edward Elgar. It was then played at the crowning of King Edward the VII. It really started catching on after it was played for Elgar, when he received an honorary degree from Yale four years later.
“The things I want to know are in books; my best friend is the man who’ll get me a book I ain’t read” [Abraham Lincoln]
Contributions by Jews to Education
Researching the contributions to education was not an easy task. Not because there were not many Jews that have contributed, but because Jews, as a people, hold education to a very high standard, so I had to work my way through the tons of articles about Jews and education to find specific articles about the history of their contributions. In fact, according to a recent Pew study, Jews are one of the most educated religious group in the United States, with almost 60% of Jews receiving college degrees (only Unitarian Universalists (67%) and Hindus (77%) have a higher percentage of college graduates), but Jews spend more time in school than any other group (an average of more than 13 years of formal schooling).
Figure 3 Israel Institute of Technology (Source: Wikipedia)
“A person who won’t read has no advantage over one who cannot read” [Mark Twain]
Jews began setting up their own schools soon after the diaspora, and had institutions set up by the year 65, when Rabbi Yeshua Ben Gamla ruled that every Jewish child, beginning at age 6 should attend school. [Fast fact: he also ruled that class size should not exceed 25 children.] It was not until the 1772, when Jews were allowed to attend secular universities (first allowed by Emperor Joseph Ritter von Wertheimer of Austria in the Edict of Tolerance).
Some of the Jews that contributed to education are as follows:
- Joseph Ritter von Werthheimer – As mentioned above, he created and set up the first Kindergartens
- Alen Brandmen – A Jewish teacher from France that focused on teaching manual skills in school, and also advocated teaching to the deaf and mute
- Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid – An English Baronet that helped finance and establish the University College in London in 1825
- Julius Rosenwald – Jewish philanthropist that helped to fund schools for blacks during the early part of the 1900s, and was the principle financer for the Museum of Science and Industry (in Chicago)
- Jacob Rodrigues Pereire – Specialized in teaching deaf mutes, and had a direct influence upon Maria Montessori (mentioned above)
- Mayer de Rothschild – founded the Association for the Oral Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb (in London)
- Adolf Pick – Created kindergartens in Italy based on Werthheimer’s ideas during the mid-19th
- Otto Saloman – Created schools that taught manual skills in Sweden in the late 1800s.
- Abraham Flexner – American doctor in the early 20th century who’s reports had a huge impact on medical and higher education.
These are but a few that influenced education. For a much more complete list, see the article on Education at Jewish Virtual Library.
Separation of Church and State
The concept of the separation of religion to the activities of the government and its people did not come into being upon the creation of the United States of America. The idea, or at least the theory, had been discussed and analyzed for centuries, and even written about by Augustine of Hippo in the late 3rd century in Northern Africa. The issue of a division of church and state had had several variations throughout history, including: caeasaropapism, where there is a leader of the people and the religion (although the leader of the people gained his position through divine intervention), and the doctrine of the two kingdoms, as first enunciated by Martin Luther. These early thoughts were taken a step further by John Locke, who argued that the government lacked the authority over an individual’s “conscience” – which includes the imposition of religion along with his lesser known contemporary, Pierre Bayle, who advocated for the toleration of religious beliefs.
Figure 4 John Locke’s “Some Thoughts Concerning Education” (Source: Wikipedia)
These new ideas had travelled over the pond to the colonies. After Roger Williams was forced out of Massachusetts for religious difference, he formed the Rhode Island Colony, which was founded on the idea of religious freedom (as long as the religion was Christianity). However, the fundamental idea of the separation had taken root, and when the Founding Fathers began drafting the rules to govern the fledgling nation, the concept of separating religion and government was foremost in the minds of visionaries such as James Madison and Thomas Jefferson. This idea was so powerful that it was provided in the very first line of the first Amendment of the United States Constitution:
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. . . .
What is interesting, however, is that words “separation of church and state” is nowhere to be found in the First Amendment or the Constitution whatsoever. This term first became popular eleven years after the Constitution was first published. It comes from a letter by Thomas Jefferson to the Danbury Baptist Association on January 1, 1802, which reads in part:
“I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should ‘make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,’ thus building a wall of separation between Church & State.”
Although this law of the land has been around for a few centuries, it did take time to become almost fully integrated into the system, and issues still raise their head even in today’s society.
Next, a hard question to answer: although a separation of Church and State in the America is one that most of us strive for, would it also be good for Israel? If you are looking for the answers from me, you can begin looking elsewhere. I am not an Israeli, and although I think of Israel as the “Homeland of the Jewish People,” the idea of a secular vs religious state is not one for me to answer. Is it wrong if their citizens want a country which has religion intertwined with their secular laws – I do not think so, as long as it does not infringe upon the rights of others. Many other countries are founded upon their own religious ideals, but Israel is the only country in the world based upon the ideology of Judaism. Here’s an interesting article in Haaretz.com to start you on your research . . . Article
“The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet” [Aristotle]
Now that you’ve had the once-over regarding graduation traditions, and education, let’s get down to discussing its celebration, the graduation party. Different people around the world have various ideas on how to celebrate, but most include food and drink. For this month’s article I will discuss two party favorites that are good for any time – pizza and macaroni and cheese.
Mac and Cheese
The earliest known recipe for this dish, called de lasanis, was published in the 13th century, and served to the court of Charles II of Anjou. The recipe called for macaroni (squares cut out of pasta sheets), boiled, and mixed with grated cheese – and may have been served like modern day lasagna. There are then two theories as to how it became an American favorite. The first is that it was created as a casserole for a church dinner in New England. Although there may be some truth to this origin, the second is probably the more plausible theory involves an American President. Thomas Jefferson had travelled to Italy. During the trip, he tried, and enjoyed, the macaroni and cheese dish, and brought back the recipe with him (along with a pasta maker). His daughter began making, and serving the dish (using Parmesan cheese). Guests enjoyed the dish, and began spreading it to other parts of the fledgling country. The recipe later began to be made with cheddar cheese, and when Kraft came out with a boxed version in 1939, it began to all corners of the United States.
Figure 5 Pizza (Source: Wikipedia)
Pizza is a dish that has been made for hundreds of years. The idea of dining on items atop piece of bread has been around since the first breads were created – and consumed by the ancient Egyptians, Romans, and Greeks. However, the more modern idea of a pizza probably began around the 16th century in Naples, after tomatoes were introduced in the area. When Queen Margherita visited Naples in 1889, she particularly enjoyed a version of flatbread covered with red tomatoes, basil, and a soft white cheese (which are coincidently the colors of the Italian flag) – and it was dubbed the Margherita pizza. This type of pizza then began becoming popular around the country. In 1905, the first pizzeria in the United States was established (Lomardi’s on Spring Street in NYC), but was probably made in Italian homes of immigrants in the years prior. However, it was not until after WWII, that pizza became more widespread across the US.
There are a number of theories as to how Jews helped contribute to the evolution of pizza (e.g., Romans trying to conquer Israel did not like the taste of pita bread (which them was more like a flat bread), began adding topping to it, and the first pizza’s were created, which they brought back to Rome). However, I will focus briefly on another Jewish contribution to this delicious food – how “The Tomato Queen,” Tillie Lewis, a female Jewish entrepreneur in the early to mid-1900s created an empire based on canning tomatoes, and how this allowed for pizzerias to be established around the country (as well as more easily allowing individuals to make pizza at home).
Where can you get the best pizza? I know that taste is subjective, but having tasted pizza from many countries around the world, including many towns and cities across this great nation, I can unequivocally say that without a doubt Brooklyn, NY has the best pizza in the world. Period.
“The highest result of education is tolerance” [Helen Keller]
Since I do not have the space to provide a recipe to bake bread and sauce from scratch, I’ll stick to the more easily made EZ mac and cheese (with pre-bought pasta).
1 lb box Elbow Macaroni
½ cup Butter (unsalted)
½ cup Flour
1 tsp Salt
½ tsp Black Pepper
4 cups Milk
3 ½ cups Mild Cheddar Cheese
½ cup Parmesan Cheese
- Boil macaroni (according to box directions); drain
- In saucepan: melt butter, then mix in salt, flour, and pepper, until smooth
- Slowly add milk to mixture (keeping it hot)
- Add cheeses until melted
- Add to macaroni
“1st Amendment Separation of Church and State: The Intent of Our Founding Fathers” (Lon Dobbs: 1996) @ http://robt.shepherd.tripod.com/dobbs.html
“10 Ideas Judaism Gave the World” (Dr. Yvette Alt Miller: Aish.com) @ http://www.aish.com/sp/ph/10-Ideas-Judaism-Gave-the-World.html
“A Brief History of Education” (Peter Gray, Ph.D.: Psychology Today: 2008) @ https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/freedom-learn/200808/brief-history-education
“Do Most Israelis Really Want Separation of Religion and State?” (Gideon Levy: Haaretz.com: 2015) @ https://www.haaretz.com/.premium-do-most-israelis-really-want-separation-of-religion-and-state-1.5397190
“Education” (Jewish Virtual Library) @ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/education
“Education” (Dictionary.com) @ http://www.dictionary.com/browse/education
“English is Absent and Math Doen’t Count at Brooklyn’s Biggest Yeshivas” (Sonja Sharp: DNAInfo.com: 2013) @ https://www.dnainfo.com/new-york/20130122/crown-heights/english-is-absent-math-doesnt-count-at-brooklyns-biggest-yeshivas/
“Graduation Ceremony Traditions and History” (Emily Hull: CNYNews.com: 2013) @ http://cnynews.com/graduation-ceremony-traditions-and-history/
“Graduation Diploma History” (Jesse Alexander: GraduationSource.com: 2017) @ https://www.graduationsource.com/blog/graduation-diploma-history/
“Graduation Rights Have Ancient History” (Melody Coleman: The Daily Universe: 2006) @ http://universe.byu.edu/2006/04/18/graduation-rites-have-ancient-history/
“History of Education” (Robert Guisepi (Ed.): History-World.org) @ http://history-world.org/history_of_education.htm
“Ideal Occupations: The Talmudic Perspective” (Hershey H. Friedman: JLaw.com) @ http://www.jlaw.com/Articles/idealoccupa.html
“Jewish Contribution to World Education” (Robbie Rothenberg: Times of Israel: 2017) @ http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/the-jewish-contribution-to-world-education/
“Jews are World’s Most Educated Religious Group, Study Finds” (JTA: JPost.com: 2016) @ https://www.jpost.com/Diaspora/Jews-are-worlds-most-educated-religious-group-study-finds-475269
“The Most and Least Educated U.S. Religious Groups” (Caryle Murphy: PewResearch.org: 2016) @ http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/04/the-most-and-least-educated-u-s-religious-groups/
“New York State Homeschooling Regulations” (NYHEN.org) @ http://www.nyhen.org/regs.htm#e
“Origin of Macaroni and Cheese” (Clifford A. Wright: CliffordAWright.com) @ http://www.cliffordawright.com/caw/food/entries/display.php/topic_id/16/id/105/
“Rabbi Shteinman, Leader of Israel’s Ultra-Orthodox and ‘Greatest Rabbi of His Generation’ Dies at 104” (Yair Ettinger and Aaron Rabinowitz: Haaretz.com: 2017) @ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-rabbi-shteinman-the-greatest-rabbi-of-his-generation-dies-at-104-1.5626632
“The Reason for Switching Your Tassel at Graduation” (Nicole Schmoll: Classroom.Synonym.com) @ https://classroom.synonym.com/reason-switching-tassel-graduation-8232355.html
“School Choice” (Wikipedia.org) @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_choice
“Separation of Church and State” (TeachingHistory.org) @ http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/ask-a-historian/24441
“Separation of Church and State” (Wikipedia.org) @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_church_and_state
“Separation of Church and State in the United States” (Wikipedia.org) @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_church_and_state_in_the_United_States
“Will They Ever Learn? US Ultra-Orthodox Still Failing to Teach Math and Science” (Yaakov Schwartz: Times of Israel: 2017) @ https://www.timesofisrael.com/will-they-ever-learn-us-ultra-orthodox-still-failing-to-teach-math-and-science/