You’re in Jamaica: C’mon and smile!
(In Jamaica, y’all) Get it together, y’all!
(In Jamaica) Get it together, now!
In Jamaica, y’all.
[ “Smile Jamaica” by Bob Marley and the Wailers]
Coming to Jamaica
It is during the winter, and especially in February, when I think of the beautiful Caribbean islands. So, it is apropos that this month’s article is about the Caribbean, and one island in particular – Jamaica, and one of its most talented sons, who would have turned 73 on February 6th.
Jamaica is a beautiful island in the Caribbean. It was first inhabited about 2500 years ago by the Arawaks (also called the Tianos), a people that originated from South America. They named the island Xaymaca, which means “land of wood and water.” The Arawaks lived peacefully in their wooden huts, eating what they grew from the land or caught in the sea. This changed when the Spanish first landed on their island on May 5, 1494. In only a matter of years the Arawak population was decimated due to killings, overwork, and newly-introduced European diseases for which they had no immunity.
A few small towns were created by the Europeans on the island. The first was New Seville, but the only one to be developed was Spanish town. Other ships followed bringing additional Spanish and Portuguese settlers to the island. Many of these were Jews that had converted to Catholicism under threat of death [these new converts were also called marranos or conversos]. The island, however, was not well maintained nor did it have much support from Spain, add to that the occasional attacks by pirates, and it was not the most prosperous land in the world.
In May of 1655 the English set their sights on the Island and in a short battle, they overtook the island. The Spaniards freed their slaves and high-tailed it to Cuba. The slaves and their descendants are known as Maroons. However, this did not end slavery on the island; it became reinstated with the slave trade from Africa once sugar plantations began to grow in size and profitability by the 1730s. Sugar was used for many things, including the alcoholic beverage known as rum. [Fast fact: There were many slave rebellions over the years, including a war between the Maroons and the British, which eventually led to the abolition of slavery. The slave trade was stopped in 1808 and full freedom of the slaves by 1838 (32 years before the United States).]
Besides the small towns that were formerly Spanish, and now English, other settlements began to be established on the island, such as Port Royal. It was originally set up by the Spanish in 1518, and known as a haven for pirates, but became and remained a center of commerce until the late 17th century when an earthquake in 1692 and tsunami destroyed the town. The British and pirates formed a symbiotic relationship on the island. The British allowed the buccaneers to control Port Royal in exchange for acting as the coast guard of the area keeping the Spanish and Portuguese out of the way.. While under the control of the buccaneers, Port Royal was known as one of the wealthiest and wickedest cities in the world.
A Pirate’s Life For Me
Old pirates, yes, they rob I
Sold I to the merchant ships
Minutes after they took I
From the bottomless pit
But my hand was made strong
By the hand of the Almighty
We forward in this generation
[“Redemption Songs” by Bob Marley & The Wailers]
One of the most well known, and influential pirate of his day was Captain Henry Morgan. He was a terror on the high seas as a pirate (especially against Spanish vessels), then later became a privateer for the English, once again causing trouble against the Spanish. For his actions he was knighted by King Charles II, and appointed as Lt. Governor of Jamaica. [Fast fact: most of Morgan’s exploits come from a book written by Alexandre Esquemeling, who allegedly exaggerated Morgan’s adventures by making him seem very blood thirsty in order to sell more books. Morgan sued the publisher for being portrayed in such a bad light. The publisher did print a retraction, although the book became a best seller in bother Europe and the Americas.]
Other famous pirates that you may have heard of include Sir Francis Drake, Captain Kidd, Thomas Hawkins, and Blackbeard. But amongst these swashbucklers, there are many lesser known seamen that took to the profession of pirateering, including a number of Jews. No, I am not pulling your leg, there were a number of Jewish men that were pirates.
I am not talking about Pirates such as Barney Dreyfus (first Jewish person to own a professional baseball team), Cal “Abie” Abrams (OF), John Grabow (P), Dave Roberts (P), Jared Lakind (P), Erskine Mayer (P), Jake Pitler (2B), Edward “The Midget” Mensor (OF), Harry Shuman (P), or even Hank Greenberg (the “Hebrew Hammer” ended his career as a Pirate). I am referring to actual pirates, that happened to be Jewish (or of Jewish ancestry), such as Yaakov Curiel, Samuel Pallache, Sinan Reis (“The Great Jew”), and Moses Cohen Henriques.
Piracy is the committing of criminal acts on the high seas. It was not long after sea trade was first organized in the second century BCE that the first pirates began to terrorize the open waters. One of the earliest mentioned of pirates are found in records that described the raids of Likka sailors in the Mediterranean Sea (in 1400-1200 BCE). Pirates would raid ships – both private and military, and in one famous incident, Julius Caesar himself was kidnapped after pirates raided his ship in 75 BCE (a ransom was paid for his safe return). Since Jewish settlements in the area of Israel were mostly situated away from the Mediterranean, there were not many sea-faring Jews until they began to settle in the city that is now called Jaffa. By the beginning of the last millennia were many Jewish sailors, and a few of them were pirates, but the first wave of Jewish pirates started making a name for themselves in the first century during the Jewish revolts against the Romans. They were called “pirates” since they were disobeying the laws of the Roman Empire, but they were in fact Jewish revolutionaries who were trying to fight back against their oppression. [Fast fact: Sadly, one of the outcomes of this rebellion was the destruction of the Second Temple in the year 70, on Tisha B’Av, but also led to the creation of Rabbinic Judaism.]
A millennium and a half later, in the late 15th century there was a second large influx of Jews to take on the pirates life in the Mediterranean Sea. This was prompted by Alhambra Decree in 1492 (also known as the Edict of Expulsion, and more commonly called the Spanish Inquisition). [Fast fact: The “Spanish Inquisition” technically began in 1478 with the establishment of the Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain, which became more active following the Decree.] Tens of thousands of Jews (and Muslims) were forced to convert to Catholicism, leave the Iberian Peninsula, or be killed. Many Jews immigrated to Islamic countries in the South and East or to the Protestant Netherlands. In order to fight back against the Spanish and Portuguese that kicked them out of their homes, many Jews took to fighting with their host countries, and sometimes doing so in the form of piracy (either directly or as financiers).
What is ironic about the expulsion of Jews from the Iberian countries is that it was Jewish cartographers (map makers), navigators, and creators of navigational instruments (known as the Majorcan Cartographic School) that helped Spain rise to become a naval power and global Empire. Christopher Columbus (whom I have discussed possibly having Jewish roots) also mentioned the irony in his diary by writing “In the same month in which their Majesties issued the edict that all Jews should be driven out of the kingdom and the territories, in the same month they gave me the order to undertake, with sufficient men, my expedition of discovery to the Indies.” So, with their knowledge of the seas, they helped the Muslims and the Protestants to fight against the Catholics.
Many of these Jewish buccaneers belonged to the famed Barbary Pirates, that ravaged Ottoman ships. Two of the more famous Jewish pirates were Sinan Reis and Samuel Pallache. Sinan “The Great Jew” Reis, who sailed in the early to mid 16th century under Admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa where they defeated Andrea Doria in battle. Samuel “Rabbi Pirate” Pallache’s was born in Morrocco, but his family had left Spain to escape persecution before he was born. He became a merchant and also ran piracy raids against Spanish ships. In 1608 he was appointed by the sultan of Morrocco (Zidan Abu Maali) to help negotiate an alliance (“The Treaty of Friendship and Free Commerce”) with the Dutch against Spain. He was also a co-founder of the Sephardic community in Amsterdam, and three of his decedents had become Grand Rabbis in Turkey and one in the Netherlands. Yaakov Curiel was another notable Jewish pirate that was a captain of a Spanish ship who’s family had been forced converted to Christianity. Inquisitors discovered that he was secretly practicing Judaism, and tried to arrest him. With the help of his crew (many who were marranos themselves), he escaped, and formed his own company of three pirate ships to gain revenge against Spain.
You teach the youths about the pirate Hawkins
And you said he was a very great man
You teach the youths about the pirate Morgan
And you said he was a very great man
So, you can’t blame the youths, when they don’t learn
You can’t fool the youths
You can’t blame the youths of today
You can’t fool the youths
[“You Can’t Blame the Youth” by Bob Marley & The Wailers]
A third gathering of Jews taking on the act of piracy also occurred in the 16th century, this time on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, in the Caribbean. The first Jews called Jamaica home in 1530, and Columbus’ rule over the island kept the Inquisition out. [Columbus was granted the right of rule over any land he captured during his journeys.] However, eventually, the Columbus family started to lose authority, the inquisitors came to Jamaica and began their prosecution of the Jewish inhabitants. So the Jews took to piracy to help the British fight the Spanish. It was Jewish pirates that helped torment the Spanish ships, and help the British take over the island of Jamaica in 1655. One of the most prominent Jewish pirates was Moses Cohen Henriques, a Sephardic Jew formerly from Portugal, who helped Admiral Piet Pieterszoon of the Dutch India Company capture a Spanish treasure fleet in 1628, which was carrying what would be the equivalent of $1 billion in today’s currency (the only time it had ever occurred). He later set up his own pirate island off of Brazil, until the Portuguese forced him to leave. He then served as an advisor to Henry Morgan. David Abrabanel, who’s family included a long line of Spanish rabbi’s also took to a life of piracy in revenge of the slaughter of his family, went by the name of “Captain Davis” and captained a ship named “Jerusalem.” [Fast fact: Jewish pirates named their ships after people and places in the Torah, such as “Queen Esther,” “Prophet Samuel,” and “Shield of Abraham]
Although most Jews after the 17th century did not take up piracy or privateering, there were a few that still took up the profession. One such man was Jean Lafitte, was a smuggler, pirate, and privateer, and most notably helped Andrew Jackson defend New Orleans against the British in the final battle of the War of 1812. [Fast fact: It is argued that Lafitte was able to obtain a copy of the British battle plan and show it Jackson. Lefitte helped the US Army in order to avoid being imprisoned for smuggling.]
Blue jean baby, L.A. lady, seamstress for the band
Pretty eyed, pirate smile, you’ll marry a music man
Ballerina, you must have seen her dancing in the sand
And now she’s in me, always with me, tiny dancer in my hand
[Elton John, Tiny Dancer]
Fun Fact: While doing my research I had come upon the term “pirate booty” more than once. However, the word “booty” come up in modern colloquial discussions. So I took a detour from the focus of this article and researched the origin of the word. Forgive this digression, but I thought that it may be an interesting addendum to this essay. The etymology of the word “booty” derives from the Middle English (1150-1500 BCE) word būte an/or the Middle French word butin, both translating to “exchange.” It came to mean the distribution of spoils divided amongst those that gained by war, swindling, robbery, or other nefarious means. Note that Merriam Websters does not include the vernacular of booty, meaning one’s derriere. However, it does note that a “boot” is an English word for the rear of a car, which is one possible derivation for the etymology of the word’s modern use, which Dictonary.com notes may have its origin from “Black English” during the late 1920s, although OxfordDictionaries.com provides this origin as “probably an alteration of body or botty,” but also deriving from the same time frame. The word “botty” is also an old English word used informally by children to describe a person’s bottom, which also may be an origination of the modern use of “booty.” Also note, I did some research on the term “pirate smile,” but came up empty. Some theories is that it means a sly smile, a smile that can make you do anything, a smile with missing teeth, and a slit throat. Since Bernie Taupin (lyricist for Tiny Dancer) has not commented on it, your guess is as good as the ones above.
Jews in Jamaica
Not all Jamaican Jews turned to a life of piracy. They first arrived on the island in 1530 as secret Jews (maranos and conversos from Spain and Portugal) to live a life without persecution from the inquisitors. In fact, it was the grandson of Christopher Columbus (Portugallo Colon) that allowed them to settle. Although the first secret Jews had first stepped on Jamaica during Columbus’ second voyage in 1494 (it is known that at least Columbus’ interpreter, Luis de Torres, was a marrano). When the Columbus family began to lose power, the Jews on the Island helped the British to defeat the British and take over the island and under British rule, they no longer needed to practice in secret.
Jewish congregations began to form in the Island, the first synagogue thought to have been built is Neveh Shalom in 1704 (in Spanish town). It most likely followed the Sephardic style of having a sand floor. Other synagogues were built afterwards. Under the leadership of Moses Delgado, in July 1831 Jewish citizens of Jamaica received full civil rights. By 1849 eight (of 47) members of Jamaica’s House of Assembly were Jewish, and they closed for Yom Kippur due to too many members needing to observe the holiday. Although the number of Jews living on the island has dwindled over the last century and a half, they have always been a presence on the island.
Jamaica does have several Jewish Heritage sites on the island (including 21 Jewish cemeteries), and has been trying to attract tourists by providing Jewish themed tours of the island. The big problem with Jewish tourism on the island is that most of these sites are in places like Kingston, which has the longest continuously operating synagogue in the Western Hemisphere (Sha’are Shalom, founded in 1732), which is miles away from the sandy beaches that tourist flock too on the other side of the island. The synagogues in Jamaica Another issue for kosher travelers, is that there are not many food options on the island. Besides the fruits and vegetables you may find in local groceries, you may find some boxed and canned items that happen to also be kosher. There is one kosher “restaurant” on the island, run by Chabad that will deliver food to the local resorts and hotels. A third option is to bring kosher food with you while travelling, however, Jamaica is very strict with any food being imported into the country, so visitors must secure a special permit to do so.
One Love – One Heart
One Love! One Heart!
Let’s get together and feel all right
Hear the children cryin’ (One Love!)
Hear the children cryin’ (One Heart!)
Sayin’: give thanks and praise to the Lord and I will feel all right
Sayin’: let’s get together and feel all right.
[“One Love/People Get Ready” by Bob Marley and the Wailers]
Many Jews had contributed to the economic and cultural growth of Jamaica. The first well known Jamaican artist was named Isaac Mendes Belisario (1795-1849), and he was Jewish. The first black Jamaican millionaire, George Steibel (1820-1896), had a Jewish father. The oldest operating newspaper on Jamaica (since 1834), the Jamaica Gleaner, was founded by a Jewish journalist named Jacob De Cordova. The Jewish poet David Lopez (1635-1730), known for transforming psalms into poems also called Jamaica home. In the late 1800s, due to economical decline on the island, many of its Jewish residents (estimated at over 2,500) left the Island to seek better lives in the United States.
It has been widely accepted that, there are only 200 practicing Jewish residents in Jamaica. However, a recent study found that over 20,000 Jamaicans identify as being Jewish (although most are non-practicing, and 424,000 Jamaicans are decedents of Jews. [?source?] In fact, common Jewish surnames are found in Jamaica including: Abrahams, Isaacs, Levy, DeCohen, and many more.
A few such notable Jamaican of Jewish ancestry of more modern times are Chris Rockwell, the founder of Island Records, the rapper/singer Sean Paul, and legendary musician Robert Nesta Marley, better known as Bob Marley. Bob Marley, known for bringing Reggae music to the world-wide stage, his association with kaya (marijuana), and Rastafarianism, had a Jewish father (Norval Sinclair Marley). Norval Marley had come from a Jewish Syrian family, was a sixty year old white plantation overseer, when he married Afro-Jamican eighteen year old Codella Booker. His father provided financial support to him and his mother, but was often away on business, so the two rarely saw each other before passing away when Bob was only 10. He eventually went on to form the group Bob Marley and the Wailers, when went on to produce many international hits, until his untimely death at the age of 36 in 1981.
Two, three, four Exodus, movement of Jah people! Oh, yeah!
(Movement of Jah people!) Send us another brother Moses!
(Movement of Jah people!) From across the Red Sea!
(Movement of Jah people!) Send us another brother Moses!
(Movement of Jah people!) From across the Red Sea!
Movement of Jah people!
[“Exodus” by Bob Marley and the Wailers]
Although I was unable to find many sources describing a direct relationship between Bob Marley and Judaism, he did embrace Rastafarianism, which has many similarities to Judaism, such as a strict dietary code (called Ital) and there are Commandments at the heart of their beliefs (13 as opposed to 10 in Judaism), they follow many of the teachings in the Torah, and their messiah is a descendant of King Solomon (Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie), to name a few. [The topic of the similarities (and differences) between Judaism and Rastafarianism will be discussed in greater detail in a future article.] His son, Ziggy Marley, married an Israeli woman (Orly Agai) and his band Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers received the Shalom Peace award from the Jewish National Fund in 2015. During his acceptance speech, Ziggy stated that he fully supports Israel, and has always had a connection to the country, which was taught to him by his father and mother at an early age. He went on to say “If you’ve heard of my father…you’ve heard of Exodus….We are strongly connected to the history of Israel and feel a very spiritual and personal connection to that land and the people of that land,” In a 2011 interview, Ziggy Marley also discussed the Jewish-Rastafarian connection by stating “Rastafarianism has a lot to do with the Old Testament and Solomon and David and Moses, so we have a strong connection [to Israel] from many years back.”
The Food of Jamaica
Give me the food and let me grow
Let the Roots Man take a blow (Ay!)
[“Burnin’ & Lootin’ ” by Bob Marley and the Wailers]
The food of Jamaica is as colorful and diverse as the people and history of the island. The food we identify with as being Jamaican was most likely influenced by the many other cultures that have settled there. The food, like the people are a melting pot of tastes, with Spanish, British, African, East Indian, and Chinese cultures all with their hand in the pot. The islands motto, out of many, one people, can also easily also be modified to state “out of many, one cuisine.”
For instance, escovitch fish is a dish that can be traced to Spain, brought by the Sephardic Jews fleeing persecution from the Spanish. Escovitch is usually fried fish that is pickled with vinegar (almost like a ceviche). We can thank the British (who took the Island from the Spanish) for their influence in the creation of the Jamaican pattie. If you were wondering why much of the cuisine is spicy, it was the Chinese and East Indians (whom unfortunately came to the island as slaves) that turned up the “heat” on many of their dishes; for instance, the popular Jamaican dish curried goat, was most likely influenced in such a manner (goats were first introduced to the island in the 16th century by the Spanish and Portuguese). The dish, ackee and saltfish, can trace its origins from Africa, Canada, and Northern Europe. Ackee is a fruit (although really used as a vegetable) that was brought to Jamaica from Ghana in the 18th century and salt fish is (usually) cod that has been cured with salt. Plantation owners would import salted cod to feed their slaves, since it was very cheap food supply which can be stored for long periods of time. After the abolishment of slavery, the locals continued to eat the salt fish (sometimes called bacalao or bacalhau), combined with ackee, and although it had a stigma for years of being a “poor man’s meal,” it has more recently been looked at as a national dish. Bammy is a fried flat bread made from cassava (a shrub native to South America) that was brought by the original inhabitants of Jamaica, the Arawaks. Pepperpot Soup has its origins from West Africa, where it originated as an African stew, then modified by the African slaves using the available ingredients of the island.
One of the cooking styles most often associated with Jamaica is known as “jerk.” Although you may see jerk chicken, jerk fish, and other jerks at the super market, it was made with dried meat. [Fast fact: Note that the Arawak Indians had been using a process of drying meat eons before the Spanish had landed on Jamaica.] The term “jerk” is believed to have come from the Spanish word (via Peru) for dried meat, charqui, which probably was transliterated as “jerky” in English (aka beef jerky). The dish has its origins from Africa. The Spanish had brought Coromantee Africans (from an area in Ghana) as slaves. When they fled the oncoming British, they left their slaves behind. Instead of returning to slavery under the British, the former slaves fled to the secluded part of the island, and lived with the Tainos (who had formerly escaped the Spanish Because they did not have the same spices they used back in Africa, they adopted and made due with two spices that are native to the island – allspice and Scotch bonnet peppers, which gives jerk seasoning (which is applied via a dry or wet rub) its distinctive flavor. [Fast fact: Scotch bonnet peppers have a Scoville heat rating of 100,000 to 350,000 units. Compare that to the 3,500 to 8,000 units for a jalapeño pepper or 10,000 to 23,000 for a Serrano pepper that many Americans find too spicy.]
An article on the food of Jamaica would not be complete without a mention of its most notable drink – rum. Alcoholic beverages made out of sugarcane juice has been made for thousands of years. In the 1300s, Marco Polo mentions a wine made of sugar in his journal, and remnants of rum were found in a sealed jar when they raised the ship Vasa, which sunk in 1628. However, when it was discovered that fermenting of molasses (a byproduct of sugar cane) can produce an alcoholic beverage, it changed history (and brought about the worst in humans, by forming the slave trade triangle, and the popularity of the drink brought about the Sugar Act in the Colonies, which was one of the factors leading to the Revolutionary War). It had long been thought that the creation of rum from sugar cane began on the island of Barbados, more recent evidence shows that it may have begun in Brazil. During the years of piracy, the popular drink was called bumbo – which was a mix of rum, water, sugar, and nutmeg. [Rum will be the subject of a future article.]
Photo of Vasa, from Vasa Museum (courtesy L. Dobbs)
I usually try to keep my recipes simple for these articles, so I am not going to provide my complete Jamaican Jerk Chicken recipe – there are too many ingredients, and probably too hot for most of my readers palates. Instead, I am going to give you permission to go very simple by using any Jerk Chicken spice you find on your grocery shelf.
Ingredients (serves 3-4)
Chicken 3 lb. (cut into 8ths)
Jerk spice To taste (read container)
Oil 4 tbs
Cinnamon 1 tsp
Wine 2 tbs (white)
1) With fork, poke holes in chicken
2) Mix jerk spice, oil, cinnamon, and wine – then coat chicken
3) Let sit for 2 hours
4) Heat oven to 400 degrees
5) Cook for approx. 40-45 minutes (skin should be brown) or place on grill/BBQ until inside of chicken has cooked and skin is charred
- “8 Real-Life Pirates Who Roved the High Seas” (Jesse Greenspan: History.com: 2012) @ http://www.history.com/news/8-real-life-pirates-who-roved-the-high-seas
- Baseball reference (various pages) @ https://www.baseball-reference.com/
- “Bob Marley’s Jewish Father” (Adam Chandler: Tablet.com: 2013) @ http://www.tabletmag.com/scroll/123641/bob-marleys-jewish-father
- “Booty” (Dictionary.com) @ http://www.dictionary.com/browse/booty
- “Booty” (Merriam Webster) @ https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/booty
- “Booty” (OxfordDictionaries) @ https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/booty
- “Botty” (OxfordDictionaries) @ https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/botty
- “Characterization of the Modern Goat” (David Miller and Derrick Vermont (research paper): Jamaican Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture, and Fisheries: 2012) @ http://www.moa.gov.jm/Research/data/Goat%20Research/Characterization%20of%20the%20Native%20Goat%20Revised%202007.pdf
- “Connections Between Judaism and Rastafarianism” (Evan Salzberg: Debate.uvm.edu: 2009) @ https://debate.uvm.edu/dreadlibrary/Salzberg.htm
- “The Forgotten Jewish Pirates of Jamaica” (Ross Kenneth Urken: Travel & Leisure) @ http://www.travelandleisure.com/trip-ideas/jewish-pirates-jamaica-kingston
- “History of Famous Pirates and Piracy” (Famous-Pirates.com) @ http://www.famous-pirates.com/pirates-history/history-of-pirates/
- “History of Jamaican Food” (Ethnic Spicy Food and More) @ http://www.ethnic-spicy-food-and-more.com/historyofjamaicanfood.html
- “The History of Jamaican Jerk” (KitchenProject.com) @ http://kitchenproject.com/history/JerkChicken/
- “History of Jews in Jamaica” (Wikipedia.org) @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Jamaica
- “Houses of Life: The Jewish Cemeteries of Jamaica” (Rachel Frankel: Divinity, University of Chicago: 2011) @ https://divinity.uchicago.edu/sightings/houses-life-jewish-cemeteries-jamaica-rachel-frankel
- “How Salt Fish Became Part of the Jamaican Diet” (MySilverSands) @ http://www.mysilversands.com/content/11_03_17-salt-fish-jamaican-diet.aspx
- “ITAL Food: What Did Bob Marley Eat?” (Nick: MyHealthyFeed.com: 2016) @ http://www.myhealthyfeed.com/2016/01/30/ital-food-what-did-bob-marley-eat/
- “Jamaica Virtual Jewish History Tour” (Ariel Scheib: Jewish Virtual Library) @ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jamaica-virtual-jewish-history-tour
- “Jamaican History” (Jamaica Information Service) @ http://jis.gov.jm/information/jamaican-history/
- “Jamaica’s Dwindling Jewish Community Turns to Heritage Tourism” (David McFadden: Haaretz.com: 2015) @ https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/features/1.647047
- “Jewish Jamaican Journeys” (Facebook) @ https://www.facebook.com/JewishJamaicanJourneys/
- “Jewish Pirates” (Wikipedia) @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_pirates
- “Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean” [in part] (Edward Kritzler:2008 ) @ https://www.amazon.com/Jewish-Pirates-Caribbean-Swashbuckling-Freedom/dp/0385513984/ref=myjewishlearn-20
- “Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean” (Gil Stern Zohar: Jerusalem Post: 2016) @ http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Jewish-pirates-of-the-Caribbean-447397
- “Jews of Jamaica” (Dr. Yvette Miller: Aish.com) @ http://www.aish.com/jw/s/Jews-of-Jamaica.html
- “Kosher Travel to Montego Bay, Jamiaca” (Corey Goldfeder: YeahThatsKosher.com: 2016) https://yeahthatskosher.com/2016/02/kosher-travel-to-montego-bay-jamaica/
- “The Long Journey of Pepper Pot Soup” (History.org: 2017) @ http://recipes.history.org/2017/05/the-long-journey-of-pepper-pot-soup/
- “Port Royal” (Wikipedia.org) @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Royal
- “Remnants of Jamaica’s Jews Hold a Heritage Full of Firsts” (Julie Masis: Times of Israel: 2016) @ https://www.timesofisrael.com/remnants-of-jamaicas-jews-hold-a-heritage-full-of-firsts/
- “Rum” (Wikipedia.org) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rum
- “The Secret History of Rum” (Ian Williams: The Nation: 2005) @ https://www.thenation.com/article/secret-history-rum/
- “Uncovering Jamaica’s Jewish Past” (Debra A. Klein: TheDailyBeast.com: 2013) @ https://www.thedailybeast.com/uncovering-jamaicas-jewish-past
- “Understand Bob Marley Lyrics With These 14 Words” (Taylor Coe: Oxford Dictionaries: 2016) @ https://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2016/02/05/bob-marley-lyrics/
- “What to Eat in Jamaica: Traditional Jamaican Food” (Joe Fitzsimons: IndianJo.com) @ https://indianajo.com/what-to-eat-in-jamaica-traditional-jamaican-food.html
- “Ziggy Marley Reaffirms Love of Israel in ‘Shalom Award’ Acceptance Speech” (Shiryn Solny: Algeminer.com: 2015) @ https://www.algemeiner.com/2015/11/25/ziggy-marley-reaffirms-love-of-israel-in-shalom-award-acceptance-speech-video/